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Tomb relief of Hanefer

Dynasties 7&8

Dynasties 9&10


Meryibre Khety

Qakare Iby





Nebkau Akhtoy

Decentralization of Egypt

The prosperity reached during the Old Kingdom could not be sustained; it was during the 6th Dynasty that the royal power decreased and the authority passed to local governors. The end of the dynasty witnessed decentralization of power, and the Old Kingdom came to an end, resulting in political fragmentation. 

A long period, about 140 years, of continuous contradiction and confrontation between two competing states: the Theban State and the Herakleopolitan State, led to a short period of intermittent wars. The Theban State led by Mentuhotep Nebhepetre defeated its opponent and reunified the country to start a stable and prosperous era known as the Middle Kingdom.